Antimicrobial activity of ceftazidime-avibactam against Gram-negative organisms collected from U.S. medical centers in 2012

Helio S Sader, Mariana Castanheira, Robert K Flamm, David J Farrell, Ronald N Jones
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2014, 58 (3): 1684-92
The activities of the novel β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime-avibactam and comparator agents were evaluated against a contemporary collection of clinically significant Gram-negative bacilli. Avibactam is a novel non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor that inhibits Ambler class A, C, and some D enzymes. A total of 10,928 Gram-negative bacilli-8,640 Enterobacteriaceae, 1,967 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 321 Acinetobacter sp. isolates-were collected from 73 U.S. hospitals and tested for susceptibility by reference broth microdilution methods in a central monitoring laboratory (JMI Laboratories, North Liberty, IA, USA). Ceftazidime was combined with avibactam at a fixed concentration of 4 μg/ml. Overall, 99.8% of Enterobacteriaceae strains were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤4 μg/ml. Ceftazidime-avibactam was active against extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-phenotype Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, meropenem-nonsusceptible (MIC≥2 μg/ml) K. pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-nonsusceptible Enterobacter cloacae. Among ESBL-phenotype K. pneumoniae strains, 61.1% were meropenem susceptible and 99.3% were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤4 μg/ml. Among P. aeruginosa strains, 96.9% were inhibited at a ceftazidime-avibactam MIC of ≤8 μg/ml, and susceptibility rates for meropenem, ceftazidime, and piperacillin-tazobactam were 82.0, 83.2, and 78.3%, respectively. Ceftazidime-avibactam was the most active compound tested against meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa (MIC50/MIC90, 4/16 μg/ml; 87.3% inhibited at ≤8 μg/ml). Acinetobacter spp. (ceftazidime-avibactam MIC50/MIC90, 16/>32 μg/ml) showed high rates of resistance to most tested agents. In summary, ceftazidime-avibactam demonstrated potent activity against a large collection of contemporary Gram-negative bacilli isolated from patients in U.S. hospitals in 2012, including organisms that are resistant to most currently available agents, such as K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and meropenem-nonsusceptible P. aeruginosa.

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