The impact of blood pressure variability on subclinical ventricular, renal and vascular dysfunction, in patients with hypertension and diabetes

Andrea O Ciobanu, Carmen Lucia Gherghinescu, Raluca Dulgheru, Stefania Magda, Ruxandra Dragoi Galrinho, Maria Florescu, Suzana Guberna, Mircea Cinteza, Dragos Vinereanu
Mædica 2013, 8 (2): 129-36


BACKGROUND: Blood pressure variability (BPV) was proved as a cardiovascular risk factor. One of its mechanisms is related to arterial stiffness and ventriculo-arterial coupling; however its impact on subclinical cardiovascular dysfunction has not been evaluated yet.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the relationship between BPV on 24 hours, and subclinical left ventricle (LV), renal, and vascular dysfunction in diabetic and hypertensive patients.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied 56 patients (57±9 years, 29 men) with mild-to-moderate hypertension and type 2 diabetes, no cardiovascular disease, normal ejection fraction and normal renal function. 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was used to assess BPV, daytime (d) and night time (n), by: 1. mean (M); 2. standard deviation of mean (SD); 3. variance (Vr); 4. coefficient of variation (CV); 5. day/night variation: reverse dippers, non-dippers, dippers and extreme dippers; conventional and 2D speckle tracking echo to assess LV function; myocardial deformation was measured as global longitudinal strain (GLS). Endothelial (flow mediated dilation, FMD) and arterial function (intima media-thickness, IMT; pulse wave velocity, PWV), microalbuminuria were tested.

OUTCOMES: Daytime BPV correlates inversely with subclinical myocardial function evaluated through GLS. Daytime systolic BPV correlates positively with IMT (all rho > 0.30, all p < 0.05). Also, there is a significantly inverse correlation between mean BP and GLS. We found a direct correlation between mean BP, but not BPV, and microalbuminuria (all rho > - 0.30 and all p < 0.05). We found no correlation between BPV and FMD, PWV. There were no differences for GLS, microalbuminuria and FMD between dipper groups.

CONCLUSIONS: In diabetic patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension, increased daytime blood pressure variability correlates with subclinical left ventricular dysfunction and arterial function (IMT), while microalbuminuria correlates with elevated blood pressure, but not with blood pressure variability.

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