Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in children: report of three cases

Fatih Akın, Cengizhan Kılıçaslan, Ece Selma Solak, Meltem Uzun, Serhat Aygün, Şükrü Arslan
Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery 2014, 30 (3): 535-40

PURPOSE: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a condition characterized by varying degrees of headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, focal neurologic deficit, and seizures due to severe systemic hypertension. The knowledge of secondary hypertension in children is most commonly due to renal abnormalities, suggesting that the leading cause of PRES in childhood is renal diseases.

METHODS: Three pediatric patients who developed PRES due to various underlying renal diseases were reviewed.

RESULTS: The etiology of hypertension of our patients was all renal problems including atrophic kidney, hydronephrosis secondary to reflux nephropathia, nephrotic syndrome, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. While two of them had typical of the parieto-occipital and frontoparietal involvement, the other had brain stem involvement. All of the patients were recovered by the control of high blood pressure.

CONCLUSION: Primary involvement of the brain stem is rare in children. PRES should be taken into account, especially in children with renal disease in the appropriate clinical settings.

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