Microbiota and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis

Kento Imajo, Masato Yoneda, Yuji Ogawa, Koichiro Wada, Atsushi Nakajima
Seminars in Immunopathology 2014, 36 (1): 115-32
The recent rise in obesity-related diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its strong association with microbiota, has elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies. Experimental models have highlighted several mechanisms connecting microbiota to the development of liver dysfunction in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) such as increased energy harvesting from the diet, small intestine bacterial overgrowth, modulation of the intestinal barrier by glucagon-like peptide-2 secretions, activation of innate immunity through the lipopolysaccharide-CD14 axis caused by obesity-induced leptin, periodontitis, and sterile inflammation. The manipulation of microbiota through probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, and periodontitis treatment yields encouraging results for the treatment of obesity, diabetes, and NASH, but data in humans is scarce.

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