Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2, a novel cardiovascular inflammatory marker, in HIV-infected patients

Alexandra Mangili, Raabia Ahmad, Robert L Wolfert, Jeffrey Kuvin, Joseph F Polak, Richard H Karas, Christine A Wanke
Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014, 58 (6): 893-900

BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) is an emerging biomarker of cardiovascular disease. This study was conducted to describe the distribution of Lp-PLA2 in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and to determine associations between Lp-PLA2, cardiometabolic risk factors, and subclinical atherosclerosis in this population.

METHODS: Lp-PLA2 was assessed in 341 (25% women, 52% white, 74% on highly active antiretroviral therapy [HAART]) participants of a cohort with detailed characterization of atherogenic risk factors, including surrogate markers of carotid and coronary atherosclerosis.

RESULTS: Mean Lp-PLA2 mass was 313 ± 105 ng/mL and activity 173 ± 49 nmol/minute/mL. Seventy-five percent of participants had abnormal Lp-PLA2. Those in the highest Framingham Risk Score tertile had significantly higher Lp-PLA2 activity. Participants with abnormal carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) had higher Lp-PLA2 mass and activity. Those with coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores >100 had significantly higher Lp-PLA2 mass than those with lower or nondetectable calcium. Those on HAART and protease inhibitor (PI)-based treatment had significantly higher Lp-PLA2 mass and activity than those who were treatment-naive or not on PIs. In multivariate regression, HAART and PI use were positively associated with Lp-PLA2 activity and mass after adjusting for age, race, sex, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, triglyceride level, and smoking. Adding Lp-PLA2 activity tertiles to the model improved the predictive value for abnormal common cIMT, but not internal cIMT or CAC score.

CONCLUSIONS: Lp-PLA2 is highly abnormal in HIV-infected patients and is associated with several cardiovascular and HIV treatment-specific risk factors. Lp-PLA2 may be used as an additional and more vascular specific biomarker for cardiovascular risk stratification in HIV-positive patients.

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