Reducing dietary loading decreases mouse temporomandibular joint degradation induced by anterior crossbite prosthesis

Y-D Liu, L-F Liao, H-Y Zhang, L Lu, K Jiao, M Zhang, J Zhang, J-J He, Y-P Wu, D Chen, M-Q Wang
Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 2014, 22 (2): 302-12

OBJECTIVE: Dietary loading has been reported to have an effect on temporomandibular joint (TMJ) remodeling via periodontal-muscular reflex. We therefore examined whether reducing dietary loading decreased TMJ degradation induced by the unilateral anterior crossbite prosthesis as we recently reported.

METHODS: Forty 6-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups. One experimental and one control group received small-size diet and the other two groups received large-size diet. Unilateral anterior crossbite prosthesis was created in the two experimental groups. The TMJ samples were collected 3 weeks after experimental operation. Histological changes in condylar cartilage and subchondral bone were assessed by Hematoxylin & Eosin, toluidine blue, Safranin O and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or immunohistochemistry were performed to evaluate the expression levels of Collagen II, Aggrecan, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs 5 (ADAMTS-5) and RANKL/RANK/OPG in TMJ condylar cartilage and/or subchondral bone.

RESULTS: Thinner and degraded cartilage, reduced cartilage cellular density, decreased expression levels of Collagen II and Aggrecan, loss of subchondral bone and enhanced osteoclast activity were observed in TMJs of both experimental groups. However, the cartilage degradation phenotype was less severe and cartilage ADAMTS-5 mRNA was lower while OPG/RANKL ratio in cartilage and subchondral bone was higher in the small-size than large-size diet experimental group. No differences of histomorphology and the tested molecules were found between the two control groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The current findings suggest that a lower level of functional loading by providing small-size diet could reduce TMJ degradation induced by the biomechanical stimulation from abnormal occlusion.

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