Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin predicts the severity of contrast-induced acute kidney injury in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing elective coronary procedures

Adis Tasanarong, Pisit Hutayanon, Dilok Piyayotai
BMC Nephrology 2013 December 5, 14: 270

BACKGROUND: Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) particularly in high risk patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), increases morbidity and mortality. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a protein excreted by the kidney during AKI. There are no urine (u) NGAL data as an early CI-AKI marker in CKD patients undergoing coronary procedures.

METHODS: This prospective study enrolled 130 patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m² undergoing elective coronary procedures. Serial urine samples, obtained at baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h post contrast administration were analyzed by NGAL ELISA kit. AKI was defined as an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) of ≥ 0.3 mg/dl or ≥ 1.5 times baseline SCr within 48 h per 2012 KDIGO guidelines. Receiver operator characteristic curve analyses identified optimal uNGAL and delta of uNGAL values for diagnosing CI-AKI.

RESULTS: The uNGAL was significantly and inverse correlated with eGFR (R = 0.25, P < 0.005). CI-AKI developed in 16/130 (12.31%) patients: 13 and 3 in CI-AKI stages I and II, respectively. uNGAL and delta of uNGAL were significantly higher in the CI-AKI group when compared with the No CI-AKI group (P < 0.05). The best uNGAL cut-off for optimal sensitivity 94%, specificity 78%, and area under the curve 0.84 for predicting CI-AKI was 117 ng/mL at 6 h, respectively. Corresponding values for predicting CI-AKI stage II were 100%, 87% and 0.9 when using an uNGAL of 264 ng/mL at 6 h.

CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of uNGAL levels not only provide the early detecting CI-AKI but also predict the severity of CI-AKI in CKD patients undergoing elective coronary procedures.

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