Coexisting intrarenal arteriovenous and caliceovenous fistulae after percutaneous nephrolithotomy: Case report and literature review

Neeraj Rastogi, Walter Zawacki, Herlen Alencar
Interventional Medicine & Applied Science 2013, 5 (2): 81-84
A 58-year-old man was re-admitted to the Urology service with delayed gross hematuria and unstable he-modynamics, following a percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) procedure performed for an obstructive solitary left lower calyceal stone. A selective left renal angiogram demonstrated an interpolar arteriovenous fistula (AVF), which was treated with successful coil embolization of a sub-segmental feeding branch. Sub-sequent nephrostogram confirmed a coexisting caliceovenous fistula, which was observed and healed spon-taneously. Iatrogenic coexisting intrarenal AVF and caliceovenous fistulae have never been reported and should be considered as a possible cause of delayed severe hematuria with unstable hemodynamics, and/or increase in baseline creatinine after PCNL.

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