Dolutegravir, a second-generation integrase inhibitor for the treatment of HIV-1 infection

R Chris Rathbun, Staci M Lockhart, Misty M Miller, Michelle D Liedtke
Annals of Pharmacotherapy 2014, 48 (3): 395-403

OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, safety, and efficacy of dolutegravir, an integrase strand-transfer inhibitor (INSTI), and to discuss its role in the treatment of HIV-1-infected patients.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed articles indexed through August 2013 were identified using the search terms S/GSK1349572, dolutegravir, and integrase inhibitor. Information was also identified from the package insert, cited publication references, professional meeting abstracts, and the registry.

STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: English language articleswere selected for evaluation, with preference given to safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetic studies conducted in HIV-1-infected patients.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Dolutegravir is a new INSTI approved for combination treatment in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescent children. Four phase 3 studies provide the basis for current labeling in antiretroviral-naïve and antiretroviral-experienced adults. Results from these studies demonstrate that dolutegravir is noninferior in efficacy to raltegravir in antiretroviral-naïve patients and superior in antiretroviral-experienced patients. Superiority to efavirenz and darunavir/ritonavir was also demonstrated in antiretroviral-naïve patients. Dolutegravir is well tolerated, exhibits low potential for drug-drug interactions, and has a long serum half-life, allowing it to be administered once-daily in patients without preexisting INSTI resistance. Twice-daily administration is recommended in patients with known or suspected resistance mutations to first-generation INSTIs. Mild elevations in serum creatinine occur following dolutegravir initiation from inhibition of renal organic cation transporter 2 but do not reflect changes in glomerular filtration.

CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir is the first second-generation INSTI and exhibits several advantages over current integrase inhibitors and other preferred antiretrovirals. Long-term efficacy and safety are needed to define dolutegravir's role in treatment.

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