Physiologic effects of a new-generation conducted electrical weapon on human volunteers

Jeffrey D Ho, Donald M Dawes, Richard J Chang, Rebecca S Nelson, James R Miner
Journal of Emergency Medicine 2014, 46 (3): 428-35

BACKGROUND: Conducted electrical weapons (CEWs) are used by law enforcement to restrain or repel potentially violent persons. The TASER X2 CEW is a next-generation device with new technology, including new electrical waveform and output specifications. It has not previously been studied in humans.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the human physiologic effect of a new-generation CEW.

METHODS: This was a prospective, observational human study. Volunteers received a 10-s exposure via deployed probes from an X2 CEW in the abdomen and upper thigh. Measured data included vital signs; 12-lead electrocardiograms; and blood serum biomarkers before, immediately after, and 24 h post exposure. Biomarkers measured included pH, lactate, potassium, creatine kinase (CK), and troponin-I. Real-time spirometry and echocardiography were performed before, during, and after the exposure.

RESULTS: Ten volunteers completed the study. There were no important changes in vital signs or potassium. Median increase in lactate as a consequence of the exposure was 1.2 mg/dL (range 0.6-2.8 mg/dL). Median change in pH was -0.031 (range -0.011 to -0.067). No subject had a positive troponin. Median change in CK at 24 h was 313 ng/mL (range -40 to 3418 ng/mL). There was no evidence of respiratory impairment. Baseline median minute ventilation was 14.2 L/min, increased to 21.6 L/min intra-exposure (p = 0.05), and remained elevated at 21.6 L/min post exposure (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence of dangerous physiology found in the measured parameters. The physiologic effects of the X2 CEW are similar to older-generation CEWs. We encourage further study to validate these results.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"