A within-patient analysis for time-varying risk factors of CKD progression

Liang Li, Alexander Chang, Stephen G Rostand, Lee Hebert, Lawrence J Appel, Brad C Astor, Michael S Lipkowitz, Jackson T Wright, Cynthia Kendrick, Xuelei Wang, Tom H Greene
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN 2014, 25 (3): 606-13
Recent data suggest that nonlinear GFR trajectories are common among patients with CKD, but the modifiable risk factors underlying these changes in CKD progression rate are unknown. Analyses relating baseline risk factors to subsequent GFR decline are suboptimal because these relationships often attenuate as follow-up time increases and these analyses do not account for temporal changes in risk factors. We identified 74 participants in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension who had both a period of rapid GFR decline and an extended period of stability during a follow-up period of ≥12 years. We performed a within-patient comparison of time-varying risk factors measured during the periods of GFR decline and stability and identified several risk factors associated with faster GFR decline: more hospitalization episodes and hospitalization days per year; higher BP, serum phosphorus, and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; lower serum albumin and urine sodium-to-potassium ratio; slower rate of decline of serum urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, serum uric acid, and serum phosphorus; and faster rate of decline of serum hematocrit and serum bicarbonate. By allowing each patient to serve as his or her own control, this novel, within-patient analytic approach holds considerable promise as a means to identify time-varying risk factors associated with stabilization of GFR or acceleration of GFR decline.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"