Green leaf volatiles as antiaggregants for the mountain pine beetle,Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)

I M Wilson, J H Borden, R Gries, G Gries
Journal of Chemical Ecology 1996, 22 (10): 1861-75
We tested the hypothesis that green leaf volatiles act as antiaggregants for the mountain pine beetle (MPB),Dendroctonus ponderosac Hopkins. In coupled gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis MPB antennae responded to 30 ng doses of all six-carbon green leaf alcohols tested [1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol, and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol], but not to the aldehydes, hexanal or (E)-2-hexenal, or to alcohol or aldehyde homologues with more or fewer than six carbon atoms. In field trapping experiments a blend of green leaf alcohols [1-hexanol, (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol, (E)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol] effectively disrupted the response to attractive semiochemicals; a blend of the aldehydes hexanal and (E)-2-hexenal was inactive. The two best disruptants. (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, reduced catches of both sexes to levels not significantly different from catches in unbaited control traps. They also reduced the attack on trees baited with attractive MBP pheromones to a level not significantly different from that on unbaited control trees. Neither of the clerid predators captured,Enoclerus sphegeus (F.) norThanasimus undatulus (Say), was repelled by green leaf volatiles. Our results suggest that green leaf alcohols are promising disruptants which may be used to supplement the antiaggregation pheromone, verbenone, in protecting single high-value trees as well as carefully selected stands with low-level populations of MPBs.

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