Antimicrobial prophylaxis in tonsillectomy: the efficacy of preoperative single-dose oral administration of azithromycin in preventing surgical site infection

Hironao Otake, Kenji Suga, Hirokazu Suzuki, Takafumi Nakada, Ken Kato, Tadao Yoshida, Masaaki Teranishi, Michihiko Sone, Tsutomu Nakashima
Acta Oto-laryngologica 2014, 134 (2): 181-4

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that oral administration of azithromycin (AZM) is equivalent to intravenous administration of cefazolin (CEZ) for preventing surgical site infection (SSI) in patients undergoing tonsillectomy, and should be used as cost-effective antimicrobial prophylaxis.

OBJECTIVE: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., and pharyngeal anaerobes have been described as major pathogens causing SSI in transpharyngeal operations such as tonsillectomy. The purpose of this study was to explore whether administration of AZM, an oral antimicrobial agent, might be equivalent to intravenous administration of a first-generation cefem antimicrobial agent for preventing SSI in patients undergoing tonsillectomy.

METHODS: Patients undergoing tonsillectomy were divided into an AZM-treated group and a CEZ-treated group, for intergroup comparison of responses. AZM was administered once orally, 2 days before the operation, whereas patients in the CEZ-treated group received CEZ intravenously 30 min before the operation, 4 h postoperatively, and then twice daily for 3 consecutive days beginning the day after the operation.

RESULTS: There were no significant intergroup differences in mean duration of hospitalization after the operation, incidence of postoperative hemorrhage, postoperative analgesic effect, or hematologic/blood biochemical findings. The incidence of postoperative fever was significantly lower in the AZM-treated group. Diarrhea occurred as an adverse drug reaction in the AZM-treated group, but no clinically significant adverse reactions were noted.

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