Reoperative aortic valve replacement in the octogenarians-minimally invasive technique in the era of transcatheter valve replacement

Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Dan Loberman, Igor Gosev, Fadi Rassam, Siobhan McGurk, Marzia Leacche, Lawrence Cohn
Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 2014, 147 (1): 155-62

OBJECTIVE: Reoperative aortic valve replacement (re-AVR) in octogenarians is considered high risk and therefore might be indicated for transcatheter AVR. The minimally invasive technique for re-AVR limits dissection and might benefit this patient population. We report the outcomes of re-AVR in high-risk octogenarians who might be considered candidates for transcatheter AVR to assess the safety of re-AVR and minimally invasive operative techniques.

METHODS: We identified 105 patients, aged ≥80 years, who underwent open re-AVR at our institution from July 1997 to December 2011. Patients requiring concomitant coronary bypass surgery and/or other valve surgery were excluded. The outcomes of interest included operative mortality, postoperative complications, and midterm postoperative survival.

RESULTS: Of the 105 patients, 51 underwent minimally re-AVR through upper hemisternotomy (Mre-AVR) and 54 standard full sternotomy (Fre-AVR). The mean patient age was 82.8 ± 3.8 years. No significant differences were found in the patient risk factors. Postoperatively, 6 patients (5.7%) underwent reoperation for bleeding, 4 (3.8%) experienced permanent stroke, 4 (3.8%) developed new renal failure, and 22 (21.0%) had new-onset atrial fibrillation. Overall, the operative mortality was 6.7%, and the 1- and 5-year survival was 87% and 53%, respectively. When Mre-AVR and Fre-AVR were compared, the operative mortality was 9.2% in the Fre-AVR group and 3.9% in the Mre-AVR group (P = .438). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a survival benefit at both 1 year (79% ± 11.7% vs 92% ± 7.8%) and 5 years (38% ± 17.6% vs 65% ± 15.7%, P = .028) favoring Mre-AVR. Cox regression analysis identified heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, reoperation for bleeding, older age, full sternotomy, and an infectious complication as predictors of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Octogenarians who undergo re-AVR are thought to be high-risk surgical candidates. The present single-center series revealed acceptable in-hospital outcomes and operative mortality. Mre-AVR was associated with better survival compared with Fre-AVR and might benefit this population.

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