RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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The antecedents, attributes and consequences of trust among nurses and nurse managers: a concept analysis.

BACKGROUND: Although trust has been investigated in the health context, limited research explores nurse and nurse manager perceptions of trust.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the concept of trust amongst nurses and nurse managers at individual, interpersonal and organisational levels.

DESIGN: Our paper reports the findings from an interpretivist study conducted within the British National Health Service, involving thirty-nine semi-structured interviews with nurses and nurse managers.

SETTINGS: Large acute and small community organisation within the British National Health Service.

PARTICIPANTS: 28 nurses and 11 nurse managers working within an Acute and a Community sector organisation - 20 and 19 in each organisation. Participants were selected through a process of purposive sampling, reflecting variations in terms of age, grade, ward and tenure.

METHODS: We utilise a concept analysis framework in exploring the antecedents, attributes and consequences of trust amongst nurses and nurse managers at individual, interpersonal and organisational levels.

RESULTS: Key findings suggest that trust is formed within the immediate ward environment, and is significantly influenced by the role of line manager. Other positively influencing factors include professionalism and commitment to the nursing profession. These form the basis for the teamwork, delegation, support, open communication systems, confidentiality and discretion essential to delivering quality patient care. Negatively influencing factors include new management concepts, practices and styles overseen by managers recruited from the private sector. New management concepts were associated with reductions in the number of qualified nurses and increasing numbers of untrained nursing staff, reduced direct patient contact, less opportunities for professional training and development and deteriorating terms and conditions of employment.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings offer insight for managers, nurses and human resource practitioners to help build high trust relationships in a health care context. Of particular import is the need for managers to communicate more effectively organisational and financial constraints, in a manner that does not 'alienate' nurses and nurse managers, by highlighting their value and acknowledging their role in delivering high quality patient care.

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