Comparative Study
Journal Article
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Frequency-doubling technology perimetry for detection of the development of visual field defects in glaucoma suspect eyes: a prospective study.

JAMA Ophthalmology 2014 January
IMPORTANCE: While standard automated perimetry (SAP) remains the reference standard for evaluation of visual field (VF) defects in glaucoma, this study demonstrates that frequency-doubling technology (FDT) perimetry is effective in monitoring visual field progression and may detect the onset of visual field defects earlier than SAP.

OBJECTIVES: To compare detection of the development of VF defects, rate of change of VF loss, and risk factors for progression between SAP and matrix FDT perimetry in glaucoma suspect and ocular hypertensive eyes.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 113 glaucoma suspect and ocular hypertensive eyes from 76 patients with normal SAP and FDT perimetry results at baseline were prospectively followed up for SAP and FDT perimetry testing at approximately 4-month intervals for 30 months or longer. Patients were consecutively enrolled and followed up from January 2, 2008, to February 28, 2012, at the Hong Kong Eye Hospital, Chinese University of Hong Kong. Visual field progression was defined by the development of VF defects confirmed by 3 or more consecutive examinations at a cluster of 3 or more (less conservative) or 4 or more (more conservative) locations. The rates of change of mean deviation and pattern standard deviation were evaluated with linear mixed models and the risk factors for VF progression were computed with Cox proportional hazard models.

RESULTS: During a median study period of 3.4 years, 8.0% of eyes developed VF defects detected by FDT perimetry, 6.2% by SAP, and 4.4% by both using the less-conservative criteria. The detection dropped to 6.2%, 4.4%, and 2.7%, respectively, when the more-conservative criteria were applied. The rate of change of pattern standard deviation was significantly faster for FDT perimetry than SAP (P < .001). Baseline average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and the number of clock hours of abnormal retinal nerve fiber layer measurement were associated with increased risk for VF progression for both SAP and FDT perimetry.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Frequency-doubling technology perimetry would be useful to monitor the onset of VF defects in glaucoma and may detect VF defects not evident in SAP.

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