RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
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Elutax paclitaxel-eluting balloon followed by bare-metal stent compared with Xience V drug-eluting stent in the treatment of de novo coronary stenosis: a randomized trial.

BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel-eluting balloons (PEBs) are a promising alternative to drug-eluting stent (DES) in the treatment of coronary stenoses. The aim of our study was to compare the 9-month restenosis rates of a strategy of predilatation with PEB followed by bare-metal CoCr stent (PEB + BMS group) versus implantation of everolimus DES (DES group).

METHODS: This randomized, single-center study planned to enroll 366 patients with stable angina (183 patients per arm) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention of a de novo, native coronary artery stenosis ≤ 15 mm in length. Primary end point, in a noninferiority study design, was 9-month binary angiographic restenosis. A frequency-domain optical coherence tomography substudy investigated the percentage of uncovered stent struts per lesion, the percentage of malapposed/uncovered struts per lesion, and the percentage of net volume obstruction at 9-month follow-up among the first consecutive 30 patients enrolled in the PEB + BMS group.

RESULTS: The study was prematurely halted after enrollment of 125 patients, 59 in the PEB + BMS group and 66 in the DES group, because of excess of ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization in the PEB + BMS group. When all the enrolled patients completed their follow-up, IDLTR rates were 14% in the PEB + BMS versus 2% in DES group (P = .001). Binary restenosis, either in-stent or in-segment, was significantly higher in the PEB + BMS compared with DES group (17% vs 3% [P = .01] and 25% vs 4% [P = .009] respectively). Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography demonstrated important neointimal regrowth in the PEB + BMS group, similar to historical BMS data.

CONCLUSION: In the treatment of de novo coronary stenosis, a strategy of predilatation with PEB before BMS implantation was significantly inferior to implantation of an everolimus DES stent in terms of 9-month target lesion revascularization. Frequency-domain optical coherence tomography data confirm the lack of efficacy of this strategy.

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