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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular diastolic and systolic function in Saudi patients with sickle cell disease

Mohammed Fakhry Abdul-Mohsen
Journal of the Saudi Heart Association 2012, 24 (4): 217-24
24174829

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic, inherited haemoglobin disorder, associated with recurrent vaso-occlusive and haemolytic crises and chronic tissue ischemia which may adversely affect any organ system. Our objectives were to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic functions in Saudi patients with SCD originally from the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia.

DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective hospital based echocardiography study on adolescent and adult patients with SCD.

METHODS: Forty-five patients with SCD were recruited for echocardiographic study while 45 patients, matched for age and sex, served as controls. Left and right ventricular dimensions and LV wall thicknesses, LV mass index (LVMI) and LV contractility variables were obtained. Left atrial dimension and volume and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) were also estimated. We also evaluated parameters of LV diastolic function, including early and late mitral flow velocities (E and A wave respectively), E/A ratio, deceleration time (MVDT), A wave duration (MVA D), LV isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), and tissue Doppler velocities, such as lateral annular e' wave, a' wave, e'/a' ratio and E/e' ratio.

RESULTS: There were increases in the LV dimensions, LV volumes, stroke volume, and LVMI of the SCD patients. The preload was increased (LV diastolic volume) and afterload was decreased (low diastolic blood pressure). The LVEF was equivalent, though there was evidence of LV diastolic dysfunction in 24%, and pulmonary hypertension (PH) in 40% of the SCD patients. The mean left atrial volume (LAV) was also increased in the SCD patients.

CONCLUSION: LV diastolic dysfunction (heart failure with preserved ejection fraction) and PH may complicate cases of the Arab-Indian haplotype of SCD.

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