The risk of adverse outcomes in hospitalized older patients in relation to a frailty index based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment

Stephen J Evans, Margaret Sayers, Arnold Mitnitski, Kenneth Rockwood
Age and Ageing 2014, 43 (1): 127-32

BACKGROUND: prognostication for frail older adults is complex, especially when they become seriously ill.

OBJECTIVES: to test the measurement properties, especially the predictive validity, of a frailty index based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (FI-CGA) in an acute care setting in relation to the risk of death, length of stay and discharge destination.

DESIGN AND SETTING: prospective cohort study. Inpatient medical units in a teaching, acute care hospital.

SUBJECTS: individuals on inpatient medical units in a hospital, n = 752, aged 75+ years, were evaluated on their first hospital day; to test reliability, a subsample (n = 231) was seen again on Day 3.

MEASUREMENTS: all frailty data collected routinely as part of a CGA were used to create the FI-CGA. Mortality data were reviewed from hospital records, claims data, Social Security Death Index and interviews with Discharge Managers.

RESULTS: thirty-day mortality was 93 (12.4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 10-15%) of whom 52 died in hospital. The risk of dying increased with each 0.01 increment in the FI-CGA: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.05, (95% CI = 1.04-1.07). People who were discharged home had the lowest admitting mean FI-CGA = 0.38 (±standard deviation 0.11) compared with those who died, FI-CGA = 0.51 (±0.12) or were discharged to nursing home, FI-CGA = 0.49 (±0.11). Likewise, increasing FI-CGA values on admission were significantly associated with a longer length of hospital stay.

CONCLUSIONS: frailty, measured by the FI-CGA, was independently associated with a higher risk of death and other adverse outcomes in older people admitted to an acute care hospital.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"