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Total shoulder arthroplasty versus hemiarthroplasty for glenohumeral arthritis: A systematic review of the literature at long-term follow-up.

INTRODUCTION: The optimal surgical treatment of end-stage primary glenohumeral osteoarthritis remains controversial. The objective of this article is to systematically review the current available literature to formulate evidence-based guidelines for treatment of this pathology with an arthroplasty.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify all articles from 1990 onward that presented data concerning treatment of glenohumeral arthritis with total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) or head arthroplasty (HA) with a minimal follow-up of 7 years. The most relevant electronic databases were searched.

RESULTS: After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, we identified 18 studies (of the initial 832 hits). The search included a total of 1,958 patients (HA: 316 and TSA: 1,642) with 2,111 shoulders (HA: 328 + TSA: 1,783). The revision rate for any reason in the HA group (13%) was higher than in the TSA group (7%) (P < 0.001). There was a trend of a higher complication rate (of any kind) in the TSA group (12%) when compared with the HA group (8%) (P = 0.065). The weighted mean improvement in anteflexion, exorotation and abduction were respectively 33°, 15° and 31° in the HA group and were respectively 56°, 21° and 48° in the TSA group. Mean decrease in pain scores was 4.2 in the HA and 5.5 in the TSA group.

CONCLUSION: Finally, we conclude that TSA results in less need for revision surgery, but has a trend to result in more complications. The conclusions of this review should be interpreted with caution as only Level IV studies could be included.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: IV.

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