OPEN IN READ APP
COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

In situ clinical effects of new dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and fluoride on enamel de- and remineralization and plaque metabolism

R Cantore, I Petrou, S Lavender, P Santarpia, Z Liu, E Gittins, M Vandeven, D Cummins, R Sullivan, N Utgikar
Journal of Clinical Dentistry 2013, 24 Spec no A: A32-44
24156138

OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the three studies reported in this paper was to evaluate the effects of new dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride for their ability to promote remineralization of demineralized enamel, and to prevent mineral loss from sound enamel specimens. A secondary objective was to determine the effects on plaque metabolism with respect to the conversion of arginine to ammonia and sucrose to lactic acid.

METHODS: In Study 1, an intraoral remineralization/demineralization clinical model was used to assess the ability to promote remineralization of enamel of two dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and 1450 ppm fluoride, as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP), relative to a positive control with dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (Dical) and 1450 ppm fluoride, and a negative control with Dical and 250 ppm fluoride. One of the arginine-containing dentifrices contained Dical, and the other contained calcium carbonate as the source of insoluble calcium. Microradiography and image analysis were used to measure mineral changes. The study used a double-blind crossover design with a two-week treatment period. Each treatment period was preceded by a one-week washout period. Each product was used twice a day for two weeks. In the two other studies, the ability of dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine and fluoride to prevent demineralization of sound enamel blocks was assessed using an intraoral demineralization/remineralization clinical model and a double-blind crossover design with a five-day treatment period. A one-week minimum washout period preceded each treatment phase. Microhardness was used to assess mineral changes. Cariogenic challenges were administered by dipping each intraoral retainer into a 10% sucrose solution four times per day. Each product was used twice per day during the treatment period. Plaque was harvested from the specimens to measure the ability of the plaque to convert arginine to ammonia (Studies 2 and 3) and sucrose to lactic acid (Study 3) at the end of each treatment period. In Study 2, a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, Dical, and 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP was compared to a matched positive control containing 1450 ppm fluoride and to a matched negative control containing 250 ppm fluoride. In Study 3, a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1000 ppm fluoride as MFP was compared to a matched positive control containing 1000 ppm fluoride and to a matched negative control containing 0 ppm fluoride.

RESULTS: In Study 1, the percent mineral changes were +18.64, +16.77, +4.08, and -24.95 for the 1.5% arginine/Dical/1450 ppm fluoride, the 1.5% arginine/calcium carbonate/1450 ppm fluoride, the positive control, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. Study validation was successfully achieved by showing that the positive control was statistically significantly better that the negative control in promoting remineralization (p = 0.0001). The two arginine-containing test products were statistically significantly better than the positive control (p < 0.05). No significant difference was observed in efficacy between the two arginine-containing products, indicating that efficacy in promoting remineralization was independent of the choice of Dical or calcium carbonate as the source of insoluble calcium. In Study 2, the percent demineralization values were -8.50, +1.67, and +12.64 for the 1.5% arginine/Dical/1450 ppm fluoride, the positive control, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. Study validation was successfully achieved by showing that the positive control was statistically significantly better at preventing demineralization than the negative control (p < 0.0001). The arginine-containing dentifrice was shown to be statistically significantly better at preventing enamel demineralization than the positive control (p < 0.0001). Plaque metabolism measures for plaque exposed to the three treatments gave the following values for ammonia production after an arginine-sucrose challenge, expressed in nanomoles per milligram plaque: 162.7; 105.4; and 115.9 for the 1.5% arginine/Dical/1450 ppm fluoride, positive control, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. No statistically significant differences were observed between the three treatments, but the arginine-based dentifrice showed directionally higher ammonia production than both the positive and negative controls In Study 3, the percent demineralization values were +1.16, +4.96, and +15.34, for the 1.5% arginine/calcium carbonate/1 000 ppm fluoride, the positive control, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. Study validation was successfully achieved by showing that the positive control was statistically significantly better at preventing demineralization than the negative control (p < 0.0001). The arginine-containing dentifrice was shown to be statistically significantly better at preventing enamel demineralization than the positive control (p < 0.05). Plaque metabolism measures for plaque exposed to the three treatments gave the following values for ammonia production after an arginine-sucrose challenge, expressed in nanomoles per milligram plaque: 99.6; 56.2; and 42.2 for the 1.5% arginine/calcium carbonate/1000 ppm fluoride, the positive control, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. Plaque treated with the arginine- containing dentifrice produced significantly more ammonia than the positive and negative control dentifrices (p < 0.05). No significant difference in ammonia production was observed between the two controls. Lactic acid production after a sucrose challenge gave the following values, expressed as nanomoles per milligram plaque: 4.06; 5.12; and 4.64 for the 1.5% arginine/calcium carbonate/1000 ppm fluoride, the positive control, and negative control dentifrices, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the three treatments, but the arginine-based treatment showed directionally lower lactic acid production.

RESULTS: The results of these three studies show that dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound, and fluoride have a significantly improved ability to promote remineralization and prevent demineralization of enamel relative to dentifrices containing the same level of fluoride alone. Two different sources of insoluble calcium were evaluated, Dical and calcium carbonate. Dentifrices with Dical and with calcium carbonate, each in combination with 1.5% arginine and fluoride, provided superior efficacy as compared to matched dentifrices with fluoride alone, and the two products demonstrated comparable efficacy in promoting remineralization. The results of these studies demonstrate that the addition of 1.5% arginine to Dical-and calcium carbonate-based fluoride dentifrices provides superior efficacy in preventing demineralization and promoting remineralization, and, further, indicate that he arginine-containing dentifrices enhance the ability of plaque to metabolize arginine to ammonia.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
24156138
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"