JOURNAL ARTICLE

Correlation between standardized uptake value and apparent diffusion coefficient of neoplastic lesions evaluated with whole-body simultaneous hybrid PET/MRI

Rajan Rakheja, Hersh Chandarana, Linda DeMello, Kimberly Jackson, Christian Geppert, David Faul, Christopher Glielmi, Kent P Friedman
AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology 2013, 201 (5): 1115-9
24147485

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the correlation between standardized uptake value (SUV) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of neoplastic lesions in the use of a simultaneous PET/MRI hybrid system.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with known primary malignancies underwent FDG PET/CT. They then underwent whole-body PET/MRI. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with free breathing and a single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with b values of 0, 350, and 750 s/mm(2). Regions of interest were manually drawn along the contours of neoplastic lesions larger than 1 cm, which were clearly identified on PET and diffusion-weighted images. Maximum SUV (SUVmax) on PET/MRI and PET/CT images, mean SUV (SUVmean), minimum ADC (ADCmin), and mean ADC (ADCmean) were recorded on PET/MR images for each FDG-avid neoplastic soft-tissue lesion with a maximum of three lesions per patient. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to asses the following relations: SUVmax versus ADCmin on PET/MR and PET/CT images, SUVmean versus ADCmean, and ratio of SUVmax to mean liver SUV (SUV ratio) versus ADCmin. A subanalysis of patients with progressive disease versus partial treatment response was performed with the ratio of SUVmax to ADCmin for the most metabolically active lesion.

RESULTS: Sixty-nine neoplastic lesions (52 nonosseous lesions, 17 bone metastatic lesions) were evaluated. The mean SUVmax from PET/MRI was 7.0 ± 6.0; SUVmean, 5.6 ± 4.6; mean ADCmin, 1.10 ± 0.58; and mean ADCmean, 1.48 ± 0.72. A significant inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between PET/MRI SUVmax and ADCmin (r = -0.21, p = 0.04), between SUVmean and ADCmean (r = -0.18, p = 0.07), and between SUV ratio and ADCmin (r = -0.27, p = 0.01). A similar inverse Pearson correlation coefficient was found between the PET/CT SUVmax and ADCmin. Twenty of 24 patients had previously undergone PET/CT; five patients had a partial treatment response, and six had progressive disease according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1. The ratio between SUVmax and ADCmin was higher among patients with progressive disease than those with a partial treatment response.

CONCLUSION: Simultaneous PET/MRI is a promising technology for the detection of neoplastic disease. There are inverse correlations between SUVmax and ADCmin and between SUV ratio and ADCmin. Correlation coefficients between SUVmax and ADCmin from PET/MRI were similar to values obtained with SUVmax from the same-day PET/CT. Given that both SUV and ADC are related to malignancy and that the correlation between the two biomarkers is relatively weak, SUV and ADC values may offer complementary information to aid in determination of prognosis and treatment response. The combined tumoral biomarker, ratio between SUVmax and ADCmin, may be useful for assessing progressive disease versus partial treatment response.

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