Characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes in extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae pediatric clinical isolates in Mexico

Jesus Silva-Sánchez, Enrique Cruz-Trujillo, Humberto Barrios, Fernando Reyna-Flores, Alejandro Sánchez-Pérez, Ulises Garza-Ramos
PloS One 2013, 8 (10): e77968
This work describes the characterization of plasmid-mediated quinolone-resistance (PMQR) genes from a multicenter study of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae pediatric clinical isolates in Mexico. The PMQR gene-positive isolates were characterized with respect to ESBLs, and mutations in the GyrA and ParC proteins were determined. The phylogenetic relationship was established by PFGE and the transfer of PMQR genes was determined by mating assays. The prevalence of the PMQR genes was 32.1%, and the rate of qnr-positive isolates was 15.1%; 93.3% of the latter were qnrB and 6.4% were qnrA1. The distribution of isolates in terms of bacterial species was as follows: 23.5% (4/17) corresponded to E. cloacae, 13.7% (7/51) to K. pneumoniae, and 13.6% (6/44) to E. coli. In addition, the prevalence of aac(6')-Ib-cr and qepA was 15.1% and 1.7%, respectively. The molecular characteristics of qnr- and qepA-positive isolates pointed to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) CTX-M-15 as the most prevalent one (70.5%), and to SHV-12 in the case of aac(6')-Ib-cr-positive isolates. GyrA mutations at codons Ser-83 and Asp-87, and ParC mutations at codons Ser-80 were observed in 41.1% and 35.2% of the qnr-positive isolates, respectively. The analysis of the transconjugants revealed a co-transmission of bla(CTX-M-15) with the qnrB alleles. In general, the prevalence of PMQR genes (qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr) presented in this work was much lower in the pediatric isolates, in comparison to the adult isolates in Mexico. Also, ESBL CTX-M-15 was the main ESBL identified in the pediatric isolates, whereas in the adult ones, ESBLs corresponded to the CTX-M and the SHV families. In comparison with other studies, among the PMQR-genes identified in this study, the qnrB-alleles and the aac(6')-Ib-cr gene were the most prevalent, whereas the qnrS1, qnrA1 and qnrB-like alleles were the most prevalent in China and Uruguay.

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