High complication rate in revision total hip arthroplasty in juvenile idiopathic arthritis

Stuart B Goodman, Katherine Hwang, Susanna Imrie
Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research 2014, 472 (2): 637-44

BACKGROUND: Revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is challenging as a result of the patient's young age, systemic disease, multiple affected joints, small proportions, and bone loss. The intermediate- to long-term results of these surgeries remain unknown.

QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of this study is to determine the (1) functional outcomes; (2) surgical complications; and (3) frequency of reoperation or revision after revision THA for JIA.

METHODS: We reviewed the records of all patients from one center who underwent revision THA for JIA who had a minimum of 5 years of followup (mean, 9 years; range, 5-19 years). This resulted in a series of 24 revision THAs in 15 patients. All patients were Charnley Class C. Age at revision averaged 35 years (range, 21-53 years). The 20 acetabular and 12 femoral revision components included 15 cementless cups, five reconstruction/roof rings with a cemented cup, and four cemented and eight cementless femoral stems.

RESULTS: The Harris hip scores improved from 54 (range, 34-85) to 77 (range, 37-100) (p < 0.001). Complications included two proximal femoral fractures associated with severe osteolysis and one sciatic nerve palsy in a patient with severe acetabular deficiency. A total of seven hips (29%) required reoperation or revision surgery, including three for infection (one early and two late) and four for mechanical loosening.

CONCLUSIONS: Revision THA in JIA is very challenging owing to patients' small proportions and compromised bone stock. The intraoperative and early complication rates are relatively high. Prognosis for long-term survivorship is guarded; limiting factors include periprosthetic osteolysis associated with older implants that used conventional polyethylene and cemented stems.

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