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Long-term results of canal wall reconstruction tympanomastoidectomy.

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to evaluate the long-term results using the technique of canal wall reconstruction (CWR) tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration in the treatment of chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma.

STUDY DESIGN: Institutional review board-approved retrospective case review.

SETTING: Tertiary referral center.

PATIENTS: Retrospective review was performed on consecutive patients undergoing CWR tympanomastoidectomy with mastoid obliteration at a single institution from 1997 to 2011.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Status of tympanic membrane and ear canal anatomy, preoperative and postoperative audiometry, residual cholesteatoma at second look surgery, postoperative complications, recurrence rate, and location.

RESULTS: Two hundred eighty-five ears in 273 patients underwent CWR tympanomastoidectomy with a mean age of 35 years with average follow-up of 4.29 years (median, 3.16 yr). A second-look ossiculoplasty was performed in 253 (89%). Recurrent retraction pocket formation occurred in 34 ears (13%). A secondary endaural atticotomy only was required to improve access for debridement in 16 of these 34 ears (5.8% of total ears). Only 7 ears (2.6%) required a revision open cavity mastoidectomy (n = 5) or subtotal petrosectomy (n = 2) for recurrent cholesteatoma. Those undergoing second-look ossiculoplasty demonstrated a small improvement in preoperative versus postoperative air-bone gap (ABG), 28 dB versus 23 dB, respectively. Postoperative infection occurred in 16 patients (5.6%) with 1 patient requiring conversion to open cavity mastoidectomy.

CONCLUSION: A CWR tympanomastoidectomy provides excellent intraoperative exposure of the middle ear and mastoid without the long-term disadvantages of a canal wall down mastoidectomy. Long-term follow-up demonstrates that there were only 2.6% failures requiring conversion to an open cavity or subtotal petrosectomy.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4.

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