REVIEW
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Fungal endocarditis.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fungal endocarditis remains a rare disease occurring mostly in patients with predisposing host conditions. Regarding its poor prognosis because of severe complications, there is an urgent need for properly established treatment guidelines and prophylaxis for patients at risk. In this review we provide up-to-date information on treatment recommendations, and discuss recent case reports on fungal endocarditis and challenges in prophylaxis and treatment.

RECENT FINDINGS: Over the last year, an increase in cases caused by non-albicans species of Candida and other fungi like Fusarium solani, Lodderomyces elongisporus and Exophiala dermatitidis was reported. They were treated individually in case-by-case approaches, lacking randomized controlled trials and, mostly, treatment recommendations.

SUMMARY: The scarcity of fungal endocarditis demands a high index of suspicion and knowledge of the group of at-risk patients. Diagnosis aggressively pursued by echocardiography and multiple blood cultures or surgical specimens has the potential to improve outcome. Candida endocarditis should be treated immediately, including surgical treatment in combination with liposomal amphotericin B or caspofungin with optional addition of flucytosine. Aspergillus endocarditis requires rapid surgery and voriconazole.

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