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Prevalence of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis among symptomatic and dyspeptic adults in Kazakhstan. A hospital-based screening study using a panel of serum biomarkers.

Anticancer Research 2013 October
BACKGROUND: Health authorities of Kazakhstan are seeking for effective measures to interrupt the untoward trend, projected to increase the current number of gastric cancer (GC) cases (n=3,316) by 50% until the year 2030.

OBJECTIVE: Use of a non-invasive blood test with four stomach-specific biomarkers [Pepsinogen-I (PG-I) and -II (PG-II), amidated gastrin-17 (G-17), and Helicobacter pylori (HP) IgG antibodies], to assess for the prevalence of stomach conditions: Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and atrophic gastritis (AG), both known to increase GC risk of in Kazakhstan.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 835 (symptomatic and asymptomatic) cases (473 women and 362 men)(median age 46.8 years; range 13.6-74.8) was examined with a panel of biomarkers. Results were assigned in five categories: 1) Healthy stomach, 2) HP infection, 3) atrophic gastritis (AG) of the antrum, 4) AG of the corpus, and 5) AG of both antrum and corpus (pangastritis).

RESULTS: The distribution in these five categories was identical in both sexes (p=0.259). Healthy stomach was detected only in 196 (23.5%) subjects, whereas the vast majority, 62.3% (n=519) had HP infection (with no AG). In 118 (14.1%) subjects, results were consistent with AG; in antrum (n=72), corpus (n=42) or pangastritis (n=4). Prevalence of AG increased with patient's age in both sexes. There was no age-related pattern in biomarker levels, and only slight differences between the genders.

CONCLUSION: While capable of detecting the subjects at risk for GC (HP or AG), GP seems to be a cost-effective means to intervene the current ominous trend in GC incidence in Kazakhstan.

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