That chorioamnionitis is a risk factor for bronchopulmonary dysplasia--the case against.
Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is the most frequent long term sequelae in infants born at less than 29 weeks of gestational age (GA) and histological chorioamnionitis (CA) is the most frequent condition associated with very preterm birth. Numerous studies have explored the association between BPD and CA with conflicting results. This inconsistency may be attributable to differences in populations, definitions, methods, and whether potential confounding factors such as GA, antenatal steroids, and post natal events were considered. A recent systematic review and meta-analysis shows some evidence of an association between BPD and CA; however, results adjusting for important confounders show more conservative measures of association. In addition, there was evidence of publication bias: when controlling for publication bias the results were more conservative and adjusted results were no longer significant. Recent large cohort studies not included in the systematic review do not support the belief that CA is associated with an increased risk of BPD. Despite a large body of evidence, CA cannot be definitively considered a risk factor for BPD.
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