Graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction for smoking patients

Sung-Jae Kim, Su-Keon Lee, Chong Hyuk Choi, Sung-Hwan Kim, Seong-Hun Kim, Min Jung
American Journal of Sports Medicine 2014, 42 (1): 166-72

BACKGROUND: There has been no previous study regarding graft selection in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction for smoking patients.

PURPOSE: To compare the clinical outcomes of ACL reconstruction between smokers and nonsmokers and to find an optimal graft in ACL reconstruction with regard to clinical outcomes for smoking patients.

STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2.

METHODS: A total of 487 patients who underwent unilateral ACL reconstruction were retrospectively reviewed. Included patients were divided into 2 groups according to their history of smoking. Group 1 was composed of patients who had never smoked (n = 322), and group 2 consisted of patients who had reported smoking before ACL reconstruction and during rehabilitation (n = 165). Additionally, each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to the selected graft type (bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, hamstring [semitendinosus-gracilis] tendon autograft, quadriceps tendon-bone autograft, or Achilles tendon-bone allograft). Patients were assessed for knee instability with the Lachman and pivot-shift tests as well as anterior translation measured by the KT-2000 arthrometer. Functional outcomes were evaluated with the Lysholm knee score, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score, and IKDC objective grade.

RESULTS: The minimum follow-up period was 24 months. At the final follow-up evaluation, there were significant mean between-group differences regarding the side-to-side difference in anterior translation (group 1, 2.15 ± 1.11 mm; group 2, 2.88 ± 1.38 mm; P < .001), Lysholm knee score (group 1, 90.25 ± 6.18; group 2, 84.79 ± 6.67; P < .001), IKDC subjective score (group 1, 89.16 ± 5.01; group 2, 83.60 ± 7.48; P < .001), and IKDC objective grade (group 1, grade A = 151, B = 130, C = 36, D = 5 patients; group 2, grade A = 48, B = 71, C = 37, D = 9 patients; P < .001). With regard to differences in outcomes between the selected grafts within each group, the Achilles tendon-bone allograft showed the worst outcomes, with statistically significant mean differences for smoking patients in the side-to-side difference in anterior translation (3.59 ± 1.26 mm), Lysholm knee score (81.05 ± 2.82), and IKDC subjective score (79.73 ± 4.29).

CONCLUSION: Unsatisfactory outcomes with regard to stability and functional scores were shown in the smoking group compared with the nonsmoking group. In smokers, the patients receiving an Achilles tendon-bone allograft had poorer outcomes than those with autografts. The bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft is recommendable for ACL reconstruction in a smoking patient.


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Available on the App Store

Available on the Play Store
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"