The Impella device for acute mechanical circulatory support in patients in cardiogenic shock

Anthony Lemaire, Mark B Anderson, Leonard Y Lee, Peter Scholz, Thomas Prendergast, Andrew Goodman, Ann Marie Lozano, Alan Spotnitz, George Batsides
Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2014, 97 (1): 133-8

BACKGROUND: Acute cardiogenic shock is associated with high mortality rates. Mechanical circulatory devices have been increasingly used in this setting for hemodynamic support. The Impella device (Abiomed Inc, Danvers, MA) is a microaxial left ventricular assist device that can be inserted using a less invasive technique. This study was conducted to determine the outcome of patients who have undergone placement of the Impella device for acute cardiogenic shock in our institution.

METHODS: A retrospective record review of 47 patients who underwent placement of the Impella device was performed from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2011. Records were evaluated for demographics, operative details, and postoperative outcomes. Operative mortality was defined as death within 30 days of the operation.

RESULTS: The patients (33 male) were an average age of 60.23 ± 13 years. The indication for placement of the Impella device included cardiogenic shock in 15 patients (32%) and postcardiotomy cardiogenic shock in 32 (68%). Of the 47 patients, 38 (80%) received the Impella 5.0 and the rest the 2.5 device. Ventricular function recovered in 34 of 47 patients (72%), and the device was removed, with 4 patients (8%) transitioned to long-term ventricular assist devices. The 30-day mortality was 25% (12 of 47 patients). Complications occurred in 14 patients (30%), consisting of device malfunction, high purge pressures, tube fracture, and groin hematoma.

CONCLUSIONS: This is one of the largest series of patients undergoing placement of the Impella device for acute cardiogenic shock. Our outcomes showed improved results compared with historical data. Myocardial recovery was accomplished in most patients. Finally, the 30-day mortality and complication rate was acceptable in these critical patients. These benefits were all achieved with the Impella device in a less invasive method.

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