Prostate cancer gene 3 and multiparametric magnetic resonance can reduce unnecessary biopsies: decision curve analysis to evaluate predictive models

Gian Maria Busetto, Ettore De Berardinis, Alessandro Sciarra, Valeria Panebianco, Riccardo Giovannone, Stefano Rosato, Paola D'Errigo, Franco Di Silverio, Vincenzo Gentile, Stefano Salciccia
Urology 2013, 82 (6): 1355-60

OBJECTIVE: To overcome the well-known prostate-specific antigen limits, several new biomarkers have been proposed. Since its introduction in clinical practice, the urinary prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) assay has shown promising results for prostate cancer (PC) detection. Furthermore, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mMRI) has the ability to better describe several aspects of PC.

METHODS: A prospective study of 171 patients with negative prostate biopsy findings and a persistent high prostate-specific antigen level was conducted to assess the role of mMRI and PCA3 in identifying PC. All patients underwent the PCA3 test and mMRI before a second transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. The accuracy and reliability of PCA3 (3 different cutoff points) and mMRI were evaluated. Four multivariate logistic regression models were analyzed, in terms of discrimination and the cost benefit, to assess the clinical role of PCA3 and mMRI in predicting the biopsy outcome. A decision curve analysis was also plotted.

RESULTS: Repeated transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy identified 68 new cases (41.7%) of PC. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCA3 test and mMRI was 68% and 49% and 74% and 90%, respectively. Evaluating the regression models, the best discrimination (area under the curve 0.808) was obtained using the full model (base clinical model plus mMRI and PCA3). The decision curve analysis, to evaluate the cost/benefit ratio, showed good performance in predicting PC with the model that included mMRI and PCA3.

CONCLUSION: mMRI increased the accuracy and sensitivity of the PCA3 test, and the use of the full model significantly improved the cost/benefit ratio, avoiding unnecessary biopsies.


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