Thromboprophylaxis patterns, risk factors, and outcomes of care in the medically ill patient population

Charles E Mahan, Maxine D Fisher, Roger M Mills, Larry E Fields, Judith J Stephenson, An-Chen Fu, Alex C Spyropoulos
Thrombosis Research 2013, 132 (5): 520-6

INTRODUCTION: Medically ill, hospitalized patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) after discharge. This study aimed to examine thromboprophylaxis patterns, risk factors, and post-discharge outcomes.

METHODS: This was a retrospective claims analysis involving administrative claims data and in-patient data abstracted from a sample of hospital charts. Patients aged ≥ 40 years hospitalized for ≥ 2 days for nonsurgical reasons between 2005 and 2009 were included. Hospital chart data were abstracted for a random sample of patients without evidence of anticoagulant use at 30 days post-discharge. The combined data determined whether in-patient thromboprophylaxis (anticoagulant or mechanical prophylaxis) reduces risk of VTE at 90 days post-discharge. Hazard ratios (HR) and odds ratios (OR) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression.

RESULTS: Of 141,628 patients in the claims analysis, 3.9% received anticoagulants (3.6% warfarin). VTE, rehospitalization, and mortality rates were 1.9%, 17.2%, and 6.2%, respectively. The strongest predictors of post-discharge VTE were history of VTE (HR=4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.3-4.8), and rehospitalization (HR=3.9, 95% CI: 3.6-4.3). Of 504 medical charts, 209 (41.5%) reported in-patient thromboprophylaxis. There was no statistically significant difference in post-discharge VTE rates between patients who did and did not receive in-patient thromboprophylaxis. All-cause mortality was greater among patients without use of VTE prophylaxis.

CONCLUSION: Utilization rates of in-hospital and post-discharge VTE prophylaxis were low. In-hospital VTE prophylaxis did not reduce the risk of post-discharge VTE in the absence of post-discharge anticoagulation. Combined in-patient and post-discharge thromboprophylaxis lowered the odds of short-term, all-cause post-discharge mortality.

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