Simultaneous disruption of estrogen receptor and Wnt/β-catenin signaling is involved in methyl amooranin-mediated chemoprevention of mammary gland carcinogenesis in rats

Animesh Mandal, Deepak Bhatia, Anupam Bishayee
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 2013, 384 (1): 239-50
Methyl-amoorain (methyl-25-hydroxy-3-oxoo-lean-12-en-28-oate, AMR-Me), a novel synthetic oleanane triterpenoid, exerts a striking chemopreventive effect against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis through antiproliferative and proapoptotic actions. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanisms of action remain to be established. As estrogen receptor (ER) and canonical Wnt/b-catenin signaling are involved in the development and progression of breast cancer, the current study was designed to investigate the effects of AMR-Me treatment on the expressions of ER-a, ER-b, b-catenin and cyclin D1 in rat mammary tumors induced by DMBA. Mammary tumor samples were harvested from an 18-week chemopreventive study in which AMR-Me (0.8–1.6 mg/kg) was shown to inhibit mammary carcinogenesis in a dose–response manner. The expressions of ER-a, ER-b, b-catenin, and cyclin D1 were determined by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. AMR-Me downregulated the expression of intratumor ER-a and ER-b and lowered the ratio of ER-a to ER-b. AMR-Me also reduced the expression, cytoplasmic accumulation, and nuclear translocation of b-catenin, the essential transcriptional cofactor for Wnt signaling. Furthermore, AMR-Me modulated the expression of cell growth regulatory gene cyclin D1, which is a downstream target for both ER and Wnt signaling. AMR-Me at 1.6 mg/kg for 18 weeks did not exhibit any hepatotoxicity or renotoxicity. The results of the present study coupled with our previous findings indicate that simultaneous disruption of ER and Wnt/b-catenin signaling possibly contributes to antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects implicated in AMR-Me-mediated chemoprevention of DMBA-induced breast tumorigenesis in rats. Our results also suggest a possible crosstalk between two key regulatory pathways, namely ER and Wnt/b-catenin signaling, involved in mammary carcinogenesis and the value of simultaneously targeting these pathways to achieve breast cancer chemoprevention.

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