The HAS-BLED score has better prediction accuracy for major bleeding than CHADS2 or CHA2DS2-VASc scores in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation

Vanessa Roldán, Francisco Marín, Sergio Manzano-Fernández, Pilar Gallego, Juan Antonio Vílchez, Mariano Valdés, Vicente Vicente, Gregory Y H Lip
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 2013 December 10, 62 (23): 2199-204

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that a specific bleeding risk score, HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly), was better at predicting major bleeding compared with CHADS2 (congestive heart failure, hypertension, 75 years of age or older, diabetes mellitus, and previous stroke or transient ischemic attack) and CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, 75 years of age and older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, 65 to 74 years of age, female) in anticoagulated atrial fibrillation (AF) patients.

BACKGROUND: The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores are well-validated stroke risk prediction scores for AF, but are also associated with increased bleeding and mortality.

METHODS: We recruited 1,370 consecutive AF patients (49% male; median age, 76 years) receiving oral anticoagulation therapy from our outpatient anticoagulation clinic, all of whom were receiving acenocoumarol and had an international normalized ratio between 2.0 and 3.0 during the preceding 6 months. During follow-up, major bleeding events were identified by the 2005 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. Model performance was evaluated by calculating the C-statistic, and the improvement in predictive accuracy was evaluated by calculating the net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement.

RESULTS: After a median follow-up of 996 (range, 802 to 1,254) days, 114 patients (3.0%/year) presented with a major bleeding event; 31 of these events were intracranial hemorrhages (0.8%/year). Based on the C-statistic, HAS-BLED had a model performance superior to that of both CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc (both p < 0.001). Both net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement analyses also show that HAS-BLED was more accurately associated with major bleeding compared with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores.

CONCLUSIONS: In anticoagulated AF patients, a validated specific bleeding risk score, HAS-BLED, should be used for assessing major bleeding. The practice of using CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc as a measure of high bleeding risk should be discouraged, given its inferior predictive performance compared with the HAS-BLED score.

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