The accuracy of multiparametric MRI in men with negative biopsy and elevated PSA level—can it rule out clinically significant prostate cancer?

Mohamed Abd-Alazeez, Hashim U Ahmed, Manit Arya, Susan C Charman, Eleni Anastasiadis, Alex Freeman, Mark Emberton, Alex Kirkham
Urologic Oncology 2014, 32 (1): 45.e17-22

PURPOSE: To assess the performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) in patients with previous negative transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guided prostate biopsy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-four patients with at least 1 previous negative TRUS prostate biopsy underwent mp-MRI in the form of T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging. This was followed by transperineal template systematic prostate biopsies. Analysis was done based on 2 sectors per prostate, right and left (108 sectors out of 54 prostates). mp-MRI was scored using an ordinal scale 1 to 5 based on the suspicion of the presence of clinically significant disease. We used 6 different definitions for clinically significant disease and tested the performance of mp-MRI at each single definition.

RESULTS: Median age was 64 (range, 39-75), median PSA level was 10 (range, 2-23), and median number of biopsies was 45 (range, 21-137). Cancer of any volume and any grade was detected in 34 of 54 (63%) patients. mp-MRI accuracy at detection of clinically significant cancer using University College London (UCL) definition 2 (any Gleason score of 4 or maximum cancer core length of ≥ 4 mm or both) showed sensitivity of 76%, specificity of 42%, positive predictive value of 38%, and negative predictive value of 79%. For a different definition of significant tumor (UCL definition 1; dominant Gleason score 4 or maximum cancer core length ≥ 6 mm or both), the sensitivity was 90%, specificity 42%, positive predictive value 26%, and negative predictive value 95%.

CONCLUSIONS: mp-MRI showed good performance at both detection and ruling out clinically significant disease, according to the definition used. mp-MRI can then be used as a triage test in the population with persistently elevated or rising PSA levels to select patients that can avoid unnecessary prostate biopsy.

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