JOURNAL ARTICLE

Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mantle cell lymphoma of the ocular adnexal region, and lymphoma of the lacrimal gland: an investigation of clinical and histopathological features

Peter Kristian Rasmussen
Acta Ophthalmologica 2013, 91: 1-27
24041159

UNLABELLED: Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) constitute two distinct subtypes of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Marked diversities with regard to molecular biology and clinical features are recognized in different subsets of the two lymphomas. Because these differences could be related to the location of the lymphoma, it is of interest to investigate the clinical and histopathological features of DLBCL and MCL involving the ocular adnexal region (i.e. the orbit, eyelids, conjunctiva, lacrimal gland and lacrimal sac). Similarly, the lacrimal gland is the only glandular structure within the orbit. Because the lacrimal gland represents an important part of the immunological system, it is of interest to investigate lymphomas involving this location with regard to clinical and histological characteristics.

PURPOSE:   To characterize the clinical and histopathological features of Danish patients with DLBCL of the ocular adnexal region between 1980 and 2009 and of Danish ocular adnexal MCL patients from 1980 to 2005. Furthermore, the aim of this PhD was to review all specimens from patients with lymphoma of the lacrimal gland in Denmark between 1975 and 2009 to determine the distribution of lymphoma subtypes of the lacrimal gland and to describe the clinicopathological features of these patients.

RESULTS:   A total of 34 patients with DLBCL and 21 with MCL of the ocular adnexal region were identified. Twenty-seven patients had lacrimal gland lymphoma, including four DLBCLs and three MCLs from studies I and II. Elderly patients predominated in all three groups, with median ages of 78, 75 and 69 years in the DLBCL, the MCL and the lacrimal gland lymphoma groups, respectively. MCL patients had a preponderance of males, whereas females prevailed among lacrimal gland lymphoma patients. The orbit was the most common site of involvement in DLBCL and MCL. Most DLBCL patients had unilateral involvement, while MCL patients had a high frequency of bilateral involvement. Similarly, localized lymphoma was relatively frequently seen in DLBCL patients in contrast to the predominance of disseminated lymphoma in the MCL group. The majority of lacrimal gland lymphomas were low grade, and the distribution of subtypes was as follows: extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, 10 (37%); follicular lymphoma, 5 (19%); DLBCL, 4 (15%); MCL, 3 (11%); chronic lymphocytic leukaemia/small lymphatic lymphoma, 2 (7%); and unclassified B-cell lymphoma, 3 (11%). The overall survival rates at 3 and 5 years for the entire study group of DLBCL were 42% and 20%, whereas 58% and 22% of MCL patients were alive 3 and 5 years after the time of diagnosis. The 5-year overall survival rate of lacrimal gland lymphoma patients was 70%. Concordant bone marrow involvement and the International Prognostic Index score were predictive factors for the overall survival in the DLBCL group in Cox regression analysis. Rituximab-containing chemotherapy was associated with an improved survival rate in MCL patients.

CONCLUSIONS:   Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and MCL involving the ocular adnexal region and lymphoma of the lacrimal gland are prevalent among elderly patients. The overall prognosis in DLBCL and MCL was poor, whereas the prognosis for lacrimal gland lymphoma patients was relatively good. Concordant bone marrow involvement and the International Prognostic Index score were independent predictive factors for mortality in the DLBCL group. Chemotherapy containing rituximab significantly improved survival in the MCL group.

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