Vitamin B12 deficiency and the lack of its consequences in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

D M de Groot-Kamphuis, P R van Dijk, K H Groenier, S T Houweling, H J G Bilo, N Kleefstra
Netherlands Journal of Medicine 2013, 71 (7): 386-90

OBJECTIVES: To study vitamin B12 concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes with and without metformin use and to identify risk factors and consequences of low vitamin B12 concentrations.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This study had a cross-sectional design. During eight weeks all patients with type 2 diabetes visiting the diabetic outpatient clinic of the Isala Clinics in Zwolle were approached for participation. Participation included measurement of haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume and vitamin B12 levels. Data on neuropathy were retrospectively searched for in the patient records. Vitamin B12 deficiency was defined as serum B12 concentrations <150 pmol/l.

RESULTS: In the total cohort (n=298), the overall prevalence of vitamin B12 concentrations <150 pml/l was 9.7% (95% CI 6.6-13.7%). In type 2 diabetes patients not taking metformin (n=134), the prevalence was 4.4% (95% CI 1.6-9.4%) compared with 14.1% in metformin users (n=164) (95% CI 9.2-20.4%; p=0.006). Each 100 mg step in metformin dose increased (OR=1.081, p=0.014), whereas PPI use lowered (OR=0.322, p=0.037) the odds of having a vitamin B12 deficiency in logistic regression. Nevertheless, metformin use did not predict the chance on having anaemia or neuropathy.

CONCLUSION: Among patients with type 2 diabetes using metformin, the prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency is higher than compared with patients not using metformin. However, metformin use did not predict the chance of having anaemia or neuropathy.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"