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JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Antimicrobial resistance of Gram-negative bacilli isolated from 13 teaching hospitals across China]

Qi Wang, Chun-jiang Zhao, Hui Wang, Yun-song Yu, Zhen-hong Zhu, Yun-zhuo Chu, Zi-yong Sun, Zhi-dong Hu, Xiu-li Xu, Kang Liao, Ying-chun Xu, Li-yan Zhang, Ya-ning Mei, Bin Yang, Yu-xing Ni
Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal] 2013 May 14, 93 (18): 1388-96
24025503

OBJECTIVE: To explore the antimicrobial resistance of nosocomial Gram-negative bacilli across China.

METHODS: A total of 1247 consecutive and non-repetitive Gram-negative bacilli were isolated from 13 Chinese teaching hospitals from March to August 2012. All isolates were sent to a central laboratory for reidentification and susceptibility testing. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of meropenem and other antibacterial agents were determined by agar dilution method. And the data were analyzed with WHONET-5.6 software.

RESULTS: The activity of antimicrobial agents against Enterobacteriaceae was in the following descending order of susceptibility rate: meropenem (97.5%, 849/871) , amikacin (94.5%, 823/871) , imipenem (93.6%, 815/871) , ertapenem (92.9%, 809/871) , piperacillin/tazobactam (89.9%, 783/871) , cefoperazone/sulbactam (83.5%, 727/871) , cefepime (78.1%, 680/871) , polymyxin B (77.0%, 670/871) , cefiazidime (69.6%, 606/871) , levofloxacin (69.2%, 603/871) , ciprofloxacin (63.6%, 554/871) , minocyline (63.1%, 550/871) , ceftriaxone (55.7%, 485/871) , cefotaxime (54.2%, 472/871) and cefoxitin (51.4%, 448/871) . The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) was 64.3% (117/182) in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and 32.1% (60/187) in Klebsiella pneumonia (K. pneumoniae) . The sensitivities of E. coli to meropenem and imipenem were 100%. And over 90% of E. coli was sensitive to ertapenem, amikacin, piperacillin/tazobactam and polymyxin B. However, over 60% of E. coli was resistant to ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. The susceptibility of K. pneumoniae to meropenem, imipenem, amikacin and polymyxin B maintained at over 90%. The activities of antimicrobial agents against E. cloacae, E. aerogenes and Citrobacter freundii were in the following descending order of susceptibility rate: meropenem (96.0%-100%) , imipenem (96.0%-100%) , polymyxin B (95.8%-100%) , amikacin (92.2%-100%) , ertapenem (85.6%-93.3%) , cefepime (77.8%-93.3%) , cefoperazone/sulbactam (78.4%-90.0%) and piperacillin/tazobactam (65.0%-89.8%) . The most susceptible agent against Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) was polymyxin B (100%) . The susceptibilities of A.baumannii to imipenem, meropenem and minocyline were 37.8% (65/172) , 36.0% (62/172) and 62.8% (108/172) respectively. The most active agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were polymyxin B (97.2%, 173/178) , followed by amikacin (89.3%, 159/178) and cefiazidime (83.7%, 149/178) . Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute revised P.aeruginosa susceptibility standard in 2012. The sensitivity of piperacillin/tazobactam changed from 83.7% (149/178) to 77.5% (138/178) . The sensitivity of meropenem decreased from 78.1% ( 139/178 ) to 71.3% ( 127/178 ) while that of imipenem declined from 69.7% (124/178) to 59.6% (106/178) . The prevalence of multi-drug resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa were 65.7% (113/172) and 9.0% (16/178) respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Carbapenems remain highly active against Enterobacteriaceae. Increasing resistance of A. baumannii to all antimicrobial agents is noted. New breakpoint to P.aeruginosa has obvious effects on antimicrobial sensitivity.

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