Monitoring attack and flight activity of Xylosandrus spp. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae): the influence of temperature on activity

Michael E Reding, Christopher M Ranger, Jason B Oliver, Peter B Schultz
Journal of Economic Entomology 2013, 106 (4): 1780-7
Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We measured the reliability of ethanol-baited bottle traps for monitoring emergence of overwintered Xylosandrus spp. in ornamental nurseries. Detection of initial flight activity by traps was compared with initial attacks on ethanol-injected trap trees. To develop tools for forecasting Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) activity, the relationships between temperature and their attack and flight activity were examined, and the bloom sequence of ornamental plants was examined as phenological indicators of X. germanus emergence in Ohio. Captures of X. germanus coincided with attacks on trap trees on seven of eight occasions over 2 yr in four nurseries. Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motshulsky) were detected in only one nursery and captures coincided with attacks each year. There was a strong relationship between maximum daily temperatures 20 and 21degrees C and X. germanus attack and flight activity. No attack or flight activity were detected in a monitoring period unless there were 1 or 2 d of at least 20 degrees C. Emergence of X. germanus always began after and within 6 d of full bloom on Cornelian cherry dogwood, and usually after and within 4 d of first bloom on Norway maple and full bloom on border forsythia. The traps or phenological indicators can be used by growers to monitor emergence of X. germanus to time their initial protective sprays. The relationship between X. germanus activity and temperature can be used by growers to make decisions on timing subsequent treatments.

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