JOURNAL ARTICLE

Are there gender differences in coronary artery disease? The Malaysian National Cardiovascular Disease Database - Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (NCVD-PCI) Registry

Chuey Yan Lee, Noran N Hairi, Wan Azman Wan Ahmad, Omar Ismail, Houng Bang Liew, Robaayah Zambahari, Rosli Mohd Ali, Alan Yean Yip Fong, Kui Hian Sim
PloS One 2013, 8 (8): e72382
24015238

OBJECTIVES: To assess whether gender differences exist in the clinical presentation, angiographic severity, management and outcomes in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

METHODS: The study comprised of 1,961 women and 8,593 men who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and were included in the Malaysian NCVD-PCI Registry from 2007-2009. Significant stenosis was defined as ≥70% stenosis in at least one of the epicardial vessels.

RESULTS: Women were significantly older and had significantly higher rates of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, chronic renal failure, new onset angina and prior history of heart failure whereas smokers and past history of myocardial infarction were higher in men. In the ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort, more women were in Killip class III-IV, had longer door-to-balloon time (169.5 min. vs 127.3 min, p<0.052) and significantly longer transfer time (300.4 min vs 166.3 min, p<0.039). Overall, women had significantly more left main stem (LMS) disease (1.3% vs 0.6%, p<0.003) and smaller diameter vessels (<3.0 mm: 45.5% vs 34.8%, p<0.001). In-hospital mortality rates for all PCI, STEMI, Non-STEMI (NSTEMI) and unstable angina for women and men were 1.99% vs 0.98%, Odds ratio (OR): 2.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40 to 3.01), 6.19% vs 2.88%, OR: 2.23 (95% CI: 1.31 to 3.79), 2.90% vs 0.79%, OR: 3.75 (95% CI: 1.58 to 8.90) and 1.79% vs 0.29%, OR: 6.18 (95% CI: 0.56 to 68.83), respectively. Six-month adjusted OR for mortality for all PCI, STEMI and NSTEMI in women were 2.18 (95% CI: 0.97 to 4.90), 2.68 (95% CI: 0.37 to 19.61) and 2.66 (95% CI: 0.73 to 9.69), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Women who underwent PCI were older with more co-morbidities. In-hospital and six-month mortality for all PCI, STEMI and NSTEMI were higher due largely to significantly more LMS disease, smaller diameter vessels, longer door-to-balloon and transfer time in women.

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