Clinical features of spontaneous coronary artery dissection

Michiaki Tokura, Isao Taguchi, Michiya Kageyama, Takahisa Nasuno, Yoshitaka Nishiyama, Noboru Koshiji, Satoshi Koizumi, Daisuke Uehara, Yukitomo Ogino, Shigeru Toyoda, Shichiro Abe, Teruo Inoue
Journal of Cardiology 2014, 63 (2): 119-22

BACKGROUND: Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is an infrequent but increasingly recognized cause of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Previous case reports demonstrated that this condition occurs in young females with a low atherosclerotic risk factor burden and may be associated with peripartum or postpartum status. The purpose of this study was to review patients with angiographically confirmed SCAD to provide additional insight into the diagnosis and treatment of this condition.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We screened medical records of all patients with ACS from March 2001 to November 2012. From these patients, we selected patients with SCAD based on coronary angiographic review. Of a total of 1159 ACS patients, 10 patients (0.86%) were diagnosed with SCAD. The mean age of these patients was 46 years, and 9 were female. ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) was observed in 9 patients and 5 patients had no coronary risk factors. One patient was treated conservatively with medication alone and 3 patients underwent thrombectomy. Balloon angioplasty was performed in 2 patients, and a bare metal stent was placed in one of these patients later. In the remaining 4 patients, bare metal stents were implanted emergently. Follow-up coronary angiography showed appropriate repair of SCAD in all 10 patients.

CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, the clinical features of SCAD appear to be similar to those reported previously. SCAD appears to be rare, but it should be considered in ACS patients, especially in younger females.

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