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Effects of prehospital epinephrine during out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with initial non-shockable rhythm: an observational cohort study

Yoshikazu Goto, Tetsuo Maeda, Yumiko Goto
Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum 2013 September 3, 17 (5): R188
24004456

INTRODUCTION: Few clinical trials have provided evidence that epinephrine administration after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) improves long-term survival. Here we determined whether prehospital epinephrine administration would improve 1-month survival in OHCA patients.

METHODS: We analyzed the data of 209,577 OHCA patients; the data were prospectively collected in a nationwide Utstein-style Japanese database between 2009 and 2010. Patients were divided into the initial shockable rhythm (n = 15,492) and initial non-shockable rhythm (n = 194,085) cohorts. The endpoints were prehospital return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), 1-month survival, and 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (cerebral performance category scale, category 1 or 2) after OHCA. We defined epinephrine administration time as the time from the start of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by emergency medical services personnel to the first epinephrine administration.

RESULTS: In the initial shockable rhythm cohort, the ratios of prehospital ROSC, 1-month survival, and 1-month favorable neurological outcomes in the non-epinephrine group were significantly higher than those in the epinephrine group (27.7% vs. 22.8%, 27.0% vs. 15.4%, and 18.6% vs. 7.0%, respectively; all P < 0.001). However, in the initial non-shockable rhythm cohort, the ratios of prehospital ROSC and 1-month survival in the epinephrine group were significantly higher than those in the non-epinephrine group (18.7% vs. 3.0% and 3.9% vs. 2.2%, respectively; all P < 0.001) and there was no significant difference between the epinephrine and non-epinephrine groups for 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (P = 0.62). Prehospital epinephrine administration for OHCA patients with initial non-shockable rhythms was independently associated with prehospital ROSC (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 8.83, 6.18, 4.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 8.01-9.73, 5.82-6.56, 3.98-4.69; for epinephrine administration times ≤9 min, 10-19 min, and ≥20 min, respectively), with improved 1-month survival when epinephrine administration time was <20 min (aOR, 1.78, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.50-2.10, 1.17-1.43; for epinephrine administration times ≤9 min and 10-19 min, respectively), and with deteriorated 1-month favorable neurological outcomes (aOR, 0.63, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.48-0.80, 0.32-0.71; for epinephrine administration times 10-19 min and ≥20 min, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Prehospital epinephrine administration for OHCA patients with initial nonshockable rhythms was independently associated with achievement of prehospital ROSC and had association with improved 1-month survival when epinephrine administration time was <20 min.

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