Incidence and prognosis of vascular complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation

Bibombe P Mwipatayi, Alarick Picardo, Taolo Vijay Masilonyane-Jones, Robert Larbalestier, Shannon Thomas, Jennifer Turner, Vikram Vijayan, Gerald Yong
Journal of Vascular Surgery 2013, 58 (4): 1028-36.e1

OBJECTIVE: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has gained increasing global popularity as a minimally invasive option for high-risk cardiac patients. However, this operation is not without risk, particularly of significant vascular complications that increase the morbidity, mortality, and overall cost of the procedure. We aim to present our experience of TAVI-related vascular complications, including the morbidity and cost impacts of these events.

METHODS: A case-series study was performed for all patients undergoing TAVI at our center. Vascular complications were defined according to the 2011 Valve Academic Research Consortium standardized end points. The data were prospectively collected from February 2009 to April 2012, and the outcomes were entered into a database and cross-checked with the hospital notes.

RESULTS: TAVI was performed on 100 patients in our center during the study period, and the 30-day mortality was 6%. Access approaches included 81 transfemoral, 18 transapical, and one trans-subclavian access. The average patient age was 84.9 years, and 65% of the patients were male. Among the transfemoral procedures, there were 16 vascular access-related complications (VAC), including nine major and seven minor complications. The major complications included aortic dissection, iliac arterial rupture, femoral dissection, false aneurysms, and distal embolization, all of which required surgical or endovascular repair. An apical false aneurysm and an apical tear were major VAC of the transapical group, with the latter resulting in death. Patients with VAC had higher blood transfusion requirements (4.1 ± 4.5 units vs 0.9 ± 2.2 units; P = .004), greater length of hospital stay (16.4 ± 10.7 days vs 6.5 ± 5.1 days; P = .001), and increased cost (A$93,448 ± 21,435 vs A$69,932 ± 15,007; P = .002) compared with the non-VAC group. The predictors of vascular complications using multivariate analysis included European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.10; P = .001) and diabetes mellitus (odds ratio, 5.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-21.88; P = .03). Occurrence of major VAC did not affect in-hospital or 30-day mortality rates and was not associated with poorer survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Vascular complications affect perioperative management and outcomes following TAVI. Our findings show that these complications often require urgent surgical or endovascular repair and result in increased blood transfusions, greater length of hospital stay, and significantly increased costs. Diabetes mellitus and logistic European System for Cardiac Operative Risk Evaluation may be predictive of VAC and should be considered during TAVI patient selection.

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