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Risk factors for the development of gastrointestinal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli in residents of long-term care facilities

Jennifer H Han, Joel Maslow, Xiaoyan Han, Sharon X Xie, Pam Tolomeo, Evelyn Santana, Lesley Carson, Ebbing Lautenbach
Journal of Infectious Diseases 2014 February 1, 209 (3): 420-5
23986544

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to assess risk factors for the development of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Escherichia coli gastrointestinal tract colonization in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 at 3 LTCFs. Residents initially colonized with FQ-susceptible E. coli were followed by means of serial fecal sampling for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization for up to 12 months or until discharge or death. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify risk factors for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization, with antibiotic and device exposures modeled as time-varying covariates.

RESULTS: Fifty-seven (47.5%) of 120 residents became newly colonized with FQ-resistant E. coli, with a median time to colonization of 57 days. Fecal incontinence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-3.06; P = .04) was significantly associated with FQ-resistant E. coli acquisition. Receipt of amoxicillin-clavulanate (HR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.43-29.4; P = .02) and the presence of a urinary catheter (HR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.06-13.8; P = .04) during LTCF stay increased the risk of new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization.

CONCLUSIONS: Acquisition of FQ-resistant E. coli was common, with nearly half of LTCF residents developing new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Further studies are needed on interventions to limit the emergence of FQ-resistant E. coli in LTCFs.

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