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Treatment of capsular contracture using complete implant coverage by acellular dermal matrix: a novel technique.

BACKGROUND: Capsular contracture is a frequent complication of breast reconstruction that affects 2.8 to 15.9 percent of patients. Use of acellular dermal matrix has been reported for treatment of contracture, with a recurrence rate of 6.3 percent, but this was limited to partial implant coverage only. The authors describe a novel surgical technique using acellular dermal matrix to completely cover the implant anteriorly to treat and prevent capsular contracture.

METHODS: Charts were reviewed to identify patients who had received implant insertion with complete acellular dermal matrix coverage performed by a single surgeon. Patient demographic information, history of irradiation or capsular contracture, prior treatment, and postoperative complications were recorded.

RESULTS: Eleven patients (16 breasts) were identified. Mean age and body mass index were 52.3 ± 6.9 years and 23.6 ± 4.4 kg/m, respectively. Four patients (five breasts) had a history of capsular contracture requiring previous capsulectomy and implant exchange. Ten cases were for correction of new-onset grade III (n = 2) or IV (n = 8) capsular contracture and one was to prevent future capsular contracture. Mean acellular dermal matrix size was 229.8 ± 46.5 cm (range, 144 to 256 cm). Average follow-up was 9.2 months (range, 2.4 to 18.8 months). One patient (one breast) developed an infection requiring implant removal. No patients experienced recurrent capsular contracture.

CONCLUSIONS: Capsular contracture may be treated successfully using complete acellular dermal matrix coverage. This technique may be a useful addition to therapies currently used to treat recalcitrant capsular contracture (early recurrence or refractory to standard therapy).

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