Comparative outcome of reduced intensity and myeloablative conditioning regimen in HLA identical sibling allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia patients: a single center experience

Hakan Goker, Evren Ozdemir, Burak Uz, Yahya Buyukasik, Mehmet Turgut, Songul Serefhanoglu, Salih Aksu, Nilgun Sayinalp, Ibrahim C Haznedaroglu, Fatma Tekin, Yasemin Karacan, Sevilay Unal, Eylem Eliacik, Ayse Isik, Osman I Ozcebe
Transfusion and Apheresis Science 2013, 49 (3): 590-9
Due to the high transplant related morbidity and mortality (TRM), relatively younger acute leukemia patients that have a good performance status and no comorbidity are eligible for myeloablative conditioning (MAC) followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The outcomes of 84 consecutive adult patients with ALL (n=38) or AML (n=46) who underwent allo-HSCT from their HLA-identical siblings were evaluated retrospectively. The median age at transplantation was 34 (17-58 years) for the whole patient population. Of these, 24 patients received a MAC and 60 patients received a fludarabine-based reduced intensity conditioning regimen (RIC). After a median follow-up of 32 months (range, 1-119), for the entire group, the 3-year estimated overall survival (OS) was 57.5% and the disease-free survival (DFS) was 51.5%. The OS for ALL and AML patients were 53.9% vs 62.1%: and DFS were 50.5% and 53.4%, respectively. The 3-year estimated OS for RIC and MAC patients were 63.2% and 41.7%; and DFS were 57.1% and 34.7%, respectively. In ALL patients, conditioning regimens (RIC vs MAC) led to similar OS and DFS; however, in AML patients both OS (70.1% vs 21.4%) and DFS (59.3% vs 42.9%) were found to be higher in RIC patients compared to MAC recipients. Overall, the TRM at day 100 was 1.7% and has increased up to 5.1% at 1st year. In multivariate analysis, the diagnosis (p=0.03) and RIC regimen (p=0.027) were the prognostic variables for prolonged OS in all patients; and RIC regimen (p=0.031) was the only prognostic factor for prolonged OS in AML patients. The first complete remission (CR1) was correlated with a prolonged DFS as an independent variable for all patients (p=0.09). Eleven of the RIC patients (18.3%) and 6 of the MAC patients (25%) developed acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Seventeen of the RIC patients (33.3%) and 4 of the MAC patients (16.7%) developed chronic GvHD. In conclusion, RIC conditioning regimens may provide a longer OS and DFS, especially in patients with AML who are in first CR, not eligible for MAC conditioning.

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