COMPARATIVE STUDY
JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in remission: comparison of intravenous busulfan plus cyclophosphamide (Cy) versus total-body irradiation plus Cy as conditioning regimen—a report from the acute leukemia working party of the European group for blood and marrow transplantation

Arnon Nagler, Vanderson Rocha, Myriam Labopin, Ali Unal, Tarek Ben Othman, Antonio Campos, Liisa Volin, Xavier Poire, Mahmoud Aljurf, Tamás Masszi, Gerard Socie, Henrik Sengelov, Mauricette Michallet, Jakob Passweg, Hendrik Veelken, Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha, Avichai Shimoni, Mohamad Mohty
Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 2013 October 1, 31 (28): 3549-56
23980086

PURPOSE: Cyclophosphamide (Cy) combined with total-body irradiation (TBI) or with busulfan (Bu) are currently the most common myeloablative regimens used in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (alloSCT) in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). Intravenous (IV) Bu has more predictable bioavailability and a safer toxicity profile than the oral formulation. Comparative studies of outcomes have been performed between oral Bu/Cy and Cy/TBI, but there have been no comparative trials in the era of IV Bu.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective registry-based study comparing outcomes of patients with AML in first or second remission after alloSCT from sibling donors who underwent IV Bu/Cy (n = 795) or Cy/TBI (n = 864) conditioning.

RESULTS: Engraftment rate was 98% and 99% after IV Bu/Cy and Cy/TBI, respectively. Grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was significantly lower in the IV Bu/Cy compared with Cy/TBI group (P < .001). Similarly, chronic GVHD was significantly lower in the IV Bu/Cy compared with Cy/TBI group (P = .003). Cumulative incidence of 2-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM; ± standard deviation [SD]) was 12% ± 1% in the IV Bu/Cy group and 15% ± 2% in the Cy/TBI group (P = .14), and 2-year relapse incidence (RI; ± SD) was 26% ± 3% and 21% ± 1%, respectively (P = .012). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) rate (± SD) was 61% ± 2% after IV Bu/Cy and 64% ± 2% after Cy/TBI (P = .27). In multivariable analysis, adjusting for differences between both groups, patients who received IV Bu/Cy had lower acute and chronic GVHD, higher RI, and a trend toward lower NRM. LFS was not statistically different between the two conditioning regimens.

CONCLUSION: This retrospective study shows that final outcomes after myeloablative conditioning using IV Bu/Cy were not statistically different from those after Cy/TBI.

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