Survival after endovascular therapy in patients with type B aortic dissection: a report from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD)

Rossella Fattori, Daniel Montgomery, Luigi Lovato, Stephan Kische, Marco Di Eusanio, Hüseyin Ince, Kim A Eagle, Eric M Isselbacher, Christoph A Nienaber
JACC. Cardiovascular Interventions 2013, 6 (8): 876-82

OBJECTIVES: This study sought to evaluate long-term survival in type B aortic dissection patients treated with thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) therapy.

BACKGROUND: Historical data have supported medical therapy in type B acute aortic dissection (TBAAD) patients. Recent advances in TEVAR appear to improve in-hospital mortality.

METHODS: We examined 1,129 consecutive patients with TBAAD enrolled in IRAD (International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection) between 1995 and 2012 who received medical (n = 853, 75.6%) or TEVAR (n = 276, 24.4%) therapy.

RESULTS: Clinical history was similar between groups. TEVAR patients were more likely to present with a pulse deficit (28.3% vs. 13.4%, p < 0.001) and lower extremity ischemia (16.8% vs. 3.6%, p < 0.001), and to characterize their pain as the "worst pain ever" (27.5% vs. 15.7%, p < 0.001). TEVAR patients were also most likely to present with complicated acute aortic dissection, defined as shock, periaortic hematoma, signs of malperfusion, stroke, spinal cord ischemia, mesenteric ischemia, and/or renal failure (61.7% vs. 37.2%). In-hospital mortality was similar in patients managed with endovascular repair (10.9% vs. 8.7%, p = 0.273) compared with medically managed patients. One-year mortality was also similar in both groups (8.1% endovascular vs. 9.8% medical, p = 0.604). Among adverse events during follow-up, aortic growth/new aneurysm was most common, occurring in 73.3% of patients with medical therapy and in 62.7% of patients after TEVAR, based on 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates showed that patients undergoing TEVAR had a lower death rate (15.5% vs. 29.0%, p = 0.018) at 5 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Results from IRAD show that TEVAR is associated with lower mortality over a 5-year period than medical therapy for TBAAD. Further randomized trials with long-term follow-up are needed.

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