4-[18F]Fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine: a radiopharmaceutical for quantifying regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density with positron emission tomography

Keun Sam Jang, Yong-Woon Jung, Guie Gu, Robert A Koeppe, Phillip S Sherman, Carole A Quesada, David M Raffel
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry 2013 September 26, 56 (18): 7312-23
4-[(18)F]Fluoro-m-hydroxyphenethylguanidine ([(18)F]4F-MHPG, [(18)F]1) is a new cardiac sympathetic nerve radiotracer with kinetic properties favorable for quantifying regional nerve density with PET and tracer kinetic analysis. An automated synthesis of [(18)F]1 was developed in which the intermediate 4-[(18)F]fluoro-m-tyramine ([(18)F]16) was prepared using a diaryliodonium salt precursor for nucleophilic aromatic [(18)F]fluorination. In PET imaging studies in rhesus macaque monkeys, [(18)F]1 demonstrated high quality cardiac images with low uptake in lungs and the liver. Compartmental modeling of [(18)F]1 kinetics provided net uptake rate constants Ki (mL/min/g wet), and Patlak graphical analysis of [(18)F]1 kinetics provided Patlak slopes Kp (mL/min/g). In pharmacological blocking studies with the norepinephrine transporter inhibitor desipramine (DMI), each of these quantitative measures declined in a dose-dependent manner with increasing DMI doses. These initial results strongly suggest that [(18)F]1 can provide quantitative measures of regional cardiac sympathetic nerve density in human hearts using PET.

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