[Vertigo in children and adolescents. Part 1: Epidemiology and diagnosis of peripheral vestibular disorders]

T Langhagen, N Lehnen, E Krause, K Jahn
HNO 2013, 61 (9): 791-802; quiz 803-4
Migraine equivalents are the most common cause of vertigo in children and adolescents. Vertigo and balance disorders occur frequently in children during the course of otitis media, middle ear effusion and viral infections. If otitis media is associated with reduced hearing and vertigo, labyrinthitis must be considered. Craniocerebral injury is another important cause of vertigo in children. In contrast, spontaneous benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is rare among children. The isolated cases of endolymphatic hydrops that occur in children are usually secondary. Perilymph fistula can have congenital, infectious or trauma-related causes. The following characteristics are useful for differentiating between different vertiginous syndromes: type and duration of vertigo, triggering/aggravating/alleviating factors and accompanying symptoms. A neuro-ophthalmologic examination is essential to rule out central vestibular disorders.

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